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Dimocarpus longan fruits ….Trái Nhãn ….

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Trái Nhãn Quế ( hay Huế ??? ) ; hạt to, cơm mỏng và dai, dòn dòn , ngọt vừa .

Vietnamese named : Nhãn
Common names : Longan, Dragon eye, Leng Keng
Scientist name : Dimocarpus longan Lour.
Synonyms : Synonyms: Nephelium longan (Lam.) Carm.; Euphoria longana Steud.
Family : Sapindaceae. Họ Bồ Hòn
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Genus:Dimocarpus
Species:D. longan

Links :

**** vho.vn/view.htm?ID=2560&keyword=gan
Nhãn – Dimocarpus longan Lour. (Euphoria longan (Lour.) Stend.), thuộc họ Bồ hòn – Sapindaceae.

Mô tả: Cây cao 5-10m, tán lá tròn xoè ra và rậm rạp. Cành non có lông. Lá mọc so le, kép lông chim, gồm 3-5 đôi lá chét nhẵn, mặt dưới màu thẫm hơn. Hoa xếp thành chuỳ mọc ở ngọn cành và ở nách lá, màu vàng nhạt. Quả tròn, vỏ quả vàng trơn nhẵn. Hạt đen nhánh. Áo hạt màu trắng trong bao quanh hạt và không dính vào hạt, khi chín thì ngọt và ăn mát.

Bộ phận dùng: Áo hạt (hay gọi là cùi) – Arillus Longan, thường gọi là Long nhãn nhục. Hạt, lá cũng được dùng.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Gốc ở Ấn Độ, được trồng ở vùng đồng bằng. Nhãn dễ trồng, mọc nhanh, thích hợp với đất thịt pha cát, nơi có lớp đất canh tác sâu. Có thể trồng bằng hạt, bằng cành chiết hay ghép cây. Độ 4-5 năm thì có quả, thời gian cho quả cũng rất lâu. Vào tháng 6-8, khi Nhãn chín, thu về, phơi nắng hay sấy cho cùi vàng đều thì lột cùi, phơi tiếp đến khô thì dùng. Hạt dùng phơi khô. Rễ và lá thu hái quanh năm.

Thành phần hoá học: Cùi Nhãn còn tươi có các thành phần sau, tính theo %: nước 77,15, tro 0,01, chất béo 0,13, protid 1,47, hợp chất có nitrogen tan trong nước 20,55, đường saccharose 12,25, vitamin A và B. Cùi Nhãn khô chứa nước 0,85, chất tan trong nước 79,77, chất không tan trong nước 19,39, tro 3,36. Trong phần tan trong nước có glucose 26,91%, saccharose 0,22%, acid tartric 1,26%, chất có nitrogen 6,309%.

Hạt Nhãn chứa tinh bột, saponin, chất béo và tanin. Lá chứa quercetrin, quercetin, tanin.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Cùi Nhãn có vị ngọt, tính ấm; có tác dụng bổ tâm, an thần, kiện tỳ, làm tăng cơ nhục. Hạt có vị mặn, tính bình, có tác dụng thu liễm chỉ huyết. Lá có tác dụng hạ nhiệt, tiêu viêm. Rễ có tác dụng lợi tiểu và hoạt huyết.

Công dụng: Các bộ phận khác nhau của Nhãn được dùng như sau:

– Cùi Nhãn dùng chữa trí nhớ suy giảm hay quên, tư lự quá độ mất ngủ, thần kinh suy nhược, tâm thần mệt mỏi hồi hộp, hoảng hốt, gan kém, tỳ kém, huyết hư, rong kinh, ốm yếu sau khi bị bệnh. Dùng 9-15g.

– Rễ chữa dưỡng trấp niệu, bạch đới, thống phong. Dùng 15-30g.

– Lá dùng ngừa sởi, trị cảm lạnh, sốt rét, viêm ruột. Dùng 10-15g. Lá nấu nước tắm trị eczema bìu dái.

– Hạt dùng trị đau dạ dày, đau thoát vị, mụn nhọt và bỏng, vết thương chảy máu. Dùng 10-15g dạng thuốc sắc. Đồng thời tán bột, hoà với dầu Dừa dùng bôi vào chỗ đau.

– Vỏ cây và vỏ quả dùng chữa bỏng, chữa sâu răng. Đốt, tán bột hay nấu cao bôi.

Ghi chú: Còn có thứ Nhãn tà, Nhãn cám – Dimocarpus longan Lour. subsp. longan var. obtusa (Pierre) Leenh., có quả ăn được và dùng làm thuốc như Nhãn và cỏ cũng dùng chữa vết thương và cầm máu

**** www.khuyennongvn.gov.vn/e-khcn/ghep-bo-cay-nhan-xuong-com…
Ghép bo cây nhãn xuồng cơm vàng để ngăn chặn bệnh chổi rồng đang gây hại hàng ngàn ha nhãn tại ĐBSCL

**** cnx.org/content/m30716/latest/?collection=col10800/1.1
sự ra hoa và biện pháp xử lý ra hoa nhãn

**** www.thaythuoccuaban.com/vithuoc/longnhan nhuc.htm
**** thuocdongduoc.vn/index.php?option=com_content&view=ar…

____________________________________________________________

**** edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg049
Longan Growing in the Florida Home Landscape1
Other common names: English – lungan, dragon eye; Spanish – mamoncillo chino, longana; Malaysian and Indonesian – leng keng; Thai – lam yai

Scientific name: Dimocarpus longan Lour.

Synonyms: Nephelium longan (Lam.) Carm.; Euphoria longana Steud.

Family: Sapindaceae

Relatives in the same family: Lychee, rambutan, pulasan, akee, Spanish lime, soapberry

Origin: Mayanmar (Burma), southern China, southwest India, Sri Lanka, Indochinese peninsula

Distribution: China, Taiwan, Thailand, Mayanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, India, Australia, Kenya, some Central and South American countries, and South Africa. In the United States longan is grown in Hawaii, California and south Florida. The longan was introduced to the United States in 1903. Commercial acreage in southern Florida was planted in the 1990s and continues to the present.

Importance: Economically the longan is an important crop in southeast Asia and is of increasing importance in Florida.

Botanical Description
Longan tree. Fig. 2. ‘Kohala’ longan tree with fruit.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Tree: The longan is a symmetrical, evergreen tree with dense dark green foliage. Depending upon climate and soil type the tree may grow over 100 ft (31 m) tall. However, in south Florida, trees typically grow to 30-40 ft (9.1-12.2 m) in height and width. The crown tends to be round or oblong and the bark is corky.

Longan leaves. Fig. 3. ‘Kohala’ longan leaves.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Leaves: The pinnately compound alternate leaves are dark green, shiny, leathery, up to 12 inches (30 cm) long with wavy margins and blunt pointed tips. There are 6 to 9 pairs of leaflets per leaf.

Longan flowers. Fig. 4. ‘Kohala’ longan panicle in flower.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Flowers: Inflorescences are terminal, 4 to 18 inches (10-45 cm) long, erect and widely branched. The inflorescence is commonly called a panicle. Flowers on the panicle are held on numerous cymules on the many branchlets of the panicle. The flowers are small and have 5 to 6 sepals and petals, and are brownish yellow or greenish yellow, with a two-lobed pistil and usually 8 stamens. Panicles may carry a few to more than 350 fruit. There are 3 flower types in longan, staminate (functionally male), pistillate (functionally female) and hermaphroditic (bisexual). Flowering in each panicle occurs in progressive openings of staminate (male) flowers first, then hermaphroditic flowers functioning as females and then hermaphroditic flowers functioning as males.

‘Kohola’ longan. Fig. 5. ‘Kohala’ longan fruit.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Fruit: The drupaceous fruit are spherical to ovoid, ¾ to 1 7/16 inches (22-36 mm) in diameter and 0.21 to 0.67 oz (6-19 g) in weight. The peel is tan or light brown, thin, leathery and smoother than that of the lychee. The pulp is whitish and translucent; thin in large seeded fruits and medium thick to thick in others. Fruit have 1 seed; globular and shiny, brown to dark brown. The pulp does not adhere to the seed and is flavorful and sweet with 12-21% soluble solids. The time from flowering to harvest is 140 to 190 days.

Season of bearing: The main bloom season for longans in south Florida is from February/March through April and the beginning of May. However, some cultivars will produce off-season blooms after the crop is harvested in late August and September. The off-season crop matures in the fall.

Varieties
There are numerous cultivars of longan; however, world-wide only 30 to 40 are grown commercially. Reliable bearing is the major production problem for longan throughout the world. In Florida, 99% of the acreage is planted with ‘Kohala’. Other cultivars have been introduced, some for a long time and others recently (Table 1). A number of new and re-introductions including ‘Edau’ (‘Daw’), ‘Chompoo’, ‘Haew’, and ‘Biew Kiew’ are under evaluation by several institutions and producers. However, nothing superior to ‘Kohala’ has been identified.

One of the recently introduced cultivars is named ‘Diamond River’. This cultivar is from Thailand and is reported to fruit every year, be precocious, produce off-season, and produce a sizeable late season crop. However, fruit quality is only fair and the tree is very susceptible to limb breakage.

Climate
Longan is a subtropical tree well adapted to tropical climates with distinctive wet/dry periods and subtropical areas with a cool, nonfreezing fall/winter period. Longans are indigenous to lowland and middle elevations in southeast Asia and grow at elevations from sea level to 1500 feet (1.8-460 m).

Longans produce more reliably in areas characterized by low non-freezing temperatures (59°F; 15°C or less) and a dry period during the fall and winter (October-February). Warm temperatures (70-85°F; 21-29°C) during spring, followed by high summer temperatures (80-95°F; 27-35°C) and nonlimiting soil moisture are best for fruit development.

Warm and rainy winters are conducive to vegetative growth and reduce flowering and fruit production. Excessive rains during flowering cause flower drop and may reduce pollination and fruit set. Young longan leaves are sensitive to strong winds during vegetative flushing which may result in leaf dehydration, browning and deformation.

Environmental Stress Physiology
Drought
Longan is tolerant of dry soil conditions. Withholding or reducing watering during the late summer/early fall through winter is recommended to stop or reduce excessive vegetative growth and enhance subsequent flowering during the spring. However, for optimum fruit production and quality, regular irrigation is recommended from flowering through harvest.

Flood
Longan is not tolerant of excessively wet or flooded soil conditions When ambient temperatures are high, young trees may decline and die with as little as 5 to 10 days of flooding or constantly wet soil conditions.

Cold
Longan is slightly less cold tolerant than lychee. Young trees are very susceptible to freezing temperatures with severe damage at 29° to 31°F (-1 to –0.5°C) and may be killed at 26° to 28°F (-2 to –3°C). Older trees are more cold tolerant but branches are injured at 25° to 26°F (-3 to -4°C) with very severe damage or death below 24°F (-4°C).

Wind
Longan trees are tolerant of windy conditions and young trees can generally be established on windy sites. Mature trees pruned to limit their hieght to 10 to 20 ft (3.1-6.1 m) are more likely to survive hurricane force winds. The most common damage from hurricane winds is toppling over of the trees and loss of most limbs. Windy, dry, cool weather during flowering desiccates flowers and reduces fruit set.

Salt
Longan is not tolerant of saline soil and water conditions. Symptoms of salt stress include marginal and tip necrosis of leaves, leaf browning and drop, stem dieback, and tree death.

Propagation
Longan may be grown from seed, however, cultivars do not come true from seed, may be slow to bear, and the fruit of inferior quality. Seedlings may be used for selection of new cultivars or rootstocks. Air layering (marcottage) is the most common propagation method used in Florida. April through August is the best time for air layering and roots form within 10 to 12 weeks. Grafting onto seedling rootstock may be done by side veneer or cleft grafting. Seedlings are usually grafted when pencil size (3/8th inch; 8 mm) or larger stem diameter. Trees may be top-worked by grafting onto selected vigorous shoots. Trees may also be propagated by cuttings with mist and bottom heat.

Production (Crop Yields)
Seedling trees may take up to 6 years to bear fruit, whereas air layered trees may bear fruit 2 to 3 years after planting. In general, longan trees bear erratically (i.e., not every year) and in some years little to no fruit is produced. Yields from individual mature trees may range from 50 to over 500 lbs (23-227 kg).

Spacing
Longans grow fairly fast and at maturity, are large trees. Homeowners should plant longan trees 22 to 25 ft (6.7-7.6 m) or more away from other trees and structures. Trees planted too close to other trees or structures may not grow normally or produce much fruit due to shading.

Soils
Longan trees thrive on various soil types provided they are well drained. They do well on sandy loams, sand and calcareous, rocky soils of south Florida.

Planting a Longan Tree
Properly planting a longan tree is one of the most important steps in successfully establishing and growing a strong, productive tree. The first step is to choose a healthy nursery tree. Commonly, nursery longan trees are grown in 3 gallon containers and trees stand 2 to 4 ft (0.6-0.9 m) from the soil media. Large trees in smaller containers should be avoided as the root system may be "root bound". This means all the available space in the container has been filled with roots to the point that the root system becomes compacted within the container. Root bound root systems may not grow properly once planted in the ground.

Inspect the tree for insect pests and diseases and inspect the trunk of the tree for wounds and constrictions. Select a healthy tree and water it regularly in preparation for planting in the ground.

Planting may be done at any time in south Florida if there is access to water. Otherwise, the best time to plant is in late spring or early summer during the rainy season.

Site Selection
In general, longan trees should be planted in full sun for best growth and fruit production. Select a part of the landscape away from other trees, buildings and structures, and powerlines. Remember longan trees can become very large if not pruned to contain their size. Select the warmest area of the landscape that does not flood (or remain wet) after typical summer rainfall events.

Planting in Sandy Soil
Many areas in Florida have sandy soil. Remove a 3 to 10 ft (0.9-3.1 m) diameter ring of grass sod. Dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times a deep as the container the longan tree has come in. Making a large hole loosens the soil adjacent to the new tree making it easy for the roots to expand into the adjacent soil. It is not necessary to apply fertilizer, topsoil, or compost to the hole. In fact, placing topsoil or compost in the hole first and then planting on top of it is not desirable. If you wish to add topsoil or compost to the native soil, mix it with the soil excavated from making the hole in no more than a 50-50 ratio.

Backfill the hole with some of the native soil removed to make the hole. Remove the tree from the container and place it in the hole so that the top of the soil media in the container is level with or slightly above the surrounding soil level. Fill soil in around the tree roots and tamp slightly to remove air pockets. Immediately water the soil around the tree and tree roots. Staking the tree with a wooden or bamboo stake is optional. However, do not use wire or nylon rope to tie the tree to the stake as they may eventually damage the tree trunk as it grows. Use a cotton or natural fiber string that will degrade slowly.

Planting in Rockland Soil
Many areas in Miami-Dade County have a very shallow soil and several inches below the soil surface is a hard calcareous bedrock. Remove a 3 to 10 ft (0.9-3.1 m) diameter ring of grass sod. Make a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times a deep as the container the longan tree has come in. To dig a hole there are several options use a pick and digging bar to break up the rock or contract with a company that has augering equipment or a backhoe. Plant as described in the previous section.

Planting on a Mound
Many areas in Florida are within 7 ft or so of the water table and experience occasional flooding after heavy rainfall events. To improve plant survival consider planting fruit trees on a 2 to 3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) (1.2-3.1 m) high by 4 to 10 ft diameter mound of native soil.

After the mound is made, dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times a deep as the container the longan tree has come in. In areas where the bedrock nearly comes to the surface (rockland soil) follow the recommendations for the previous section. In areas with sandy soil follow the recommendations from the section on planting in sandy soil.

Care of Longan Trees in the Home Landscape
A calendar outlining the month-to-month cultural practices for longan is shown in Table 2.

Fertilizer
A month after planting spread 1/4 lb (113 g) per tree of a young tree fertilizer, such as 6-6-6 (% nitrogen-% phosphate-% potassium) with minor elements with 20 to 30% of the nitrogen from organic sources. Repeat this every 6 to 8 weeks for the first year. Then, gradually increase the amount of fertilizer to 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 lb etc., (227 g, 341 g, 454 g, etc.) as the trees grow. Four to 6 dry fertilizer applications per year may be made up to the third year (Table 3).

A foliar fertilizer mix composed of minor nutrients (manganese, zinc, boron, and molybdenum) and magnesium may be applied 4 to 6 times per tree per year any time from April to September. For trees in acid to neutral soils apply iron sulfate at 0.25 to 1 oz per tree to the soil 2 to 4 timers per year. In alkaline soils with a high pH, drench the soil with iron chelate 2 to 3 times per year from June through September. To make a soil drench, mix 0.5 to 0.75 oz (14-21 g) of iron chelate with 4 to 5 gallons (14-19 liters) of water and pour on to the soil adjacent to the tree trunk.

For mature trees, 2.5 to 5.0 lbs of fertilizer per application 2 to 3 times per year is recommended. The fertilizer should be applied just prior or at bloom, perhaps during late spring, and again just before or at harvest. The fertilizer mix should also include phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O); use a 6-6-6, 8-3-9 or similar material.

Irrigation (Watering)
Young trees should be irrigated regularly to facilitate tree establishment and growth. Once trees begin to bear (3 to 4 years after planting), trees should be irrigated regularly from flowering through harvest. Research from other regions has suggested that mild drought stress during the fall (September or October) and early winter enhances flowering in late winter or early spring.

Insect Pests
Longans have a few insect problems in south Florida. The most common pests are the lychee webworm and several scale insects. The lychee webworm (Crocidosema new species) attacks emerging shoots and panicles, flowers and young fruit and if left uncontrolled drastically reduce fruit set and crop yields. Scales include the banana shaped (Coccus acutissimus) and barnacle (Ceroplastes spp.) scales, which attack mostly the underside of leaves and the philephedra scale (Phillephedra tuberculosa) that attacks leaves and fruit. Adult citrus blue-green weevil (Pachnaeus litus), little leaf notcher (Artipus floridanus) and diaprepes weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) feed on leaves and their larvae feed on roots. They are mostly a problem in marl and sandy soils. Please contact your local County Cooperative Extension Service for current control recommendations.

Diseases
There are no major disease problems of longan at the present time. Red alga (Cephaleuros virescens) attacks limbs and shoots and is most prevalent during high humidity, warm, rainy weather. Symptoms include dark gray to reddish-rust colored patches or spots on bark and/or leaves. In severe infections, leaf drop and stem die back occur. Parasitic lichen (Strigula sp.) may parasitize leaves. Symptoms include white star-shaped spots on leaf surfaces. This lichen colonizes leaves reducing their ability to photosynthesize. Please contact your local County Cooperative Extension Service for current control recommendations.

Weeds
Weeds compete for water and nutrients and will slow tree establishment. Prior to planting trees, remove sod from the area the tree is to be planted in. Grass and weeds should be kept away from the tree trunk. Placing a 2 to 4 inch (5-10 cm) thick layer of mulch will suppress weed and grass growth and hold soil moisture.

Other Pests
Birds such as boat-tailed crackles (Cássidix mexicánus) and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) may feed on the fruit. Bagging the fruit in paper bags and netting may be used to exclude these birds if they become a major problem.

Longan Trees and Lawn Care
Longan trees in the home landscape are susceptible to trunk injury caused by lawn mowers and weed eaters. Maintain a grass-free area 2 to 5 or more away from the trunk of the tree. Never hit the tree trunk with lawn mowing equipment and never use a weed eater near the tree trunk. Mechanical damage to the trunk of the tree will result in weakening the tree and if severe enough can cause the tree to dieback or die.

Roots of mature longan trees spread beyond the drip-line of the tree canopy and heavy fertilization of the lawn adjacent to longan tree is not recommended and may reduce fruiting and or fruit quality. The use of lawn sprinkler systems on a timer may result in over watering and cause longan tree to decline. This is because too much water, too often is being applied which results in root rot.

Mulch
Mulching longan trees in the home landscape helps retain soil moisture, reduces weed problems adjacent to the tree trunk, and improves the soil near the surface. Mulch with a 2 to 6 inch (5-15 cm) layer of bark, wood chips, or similar mulch material. Keep mulch 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) from the trunk.

Tree Training and Pruning
Young Trees
Young longan trees are usually not trained in south Florida. However, young longan trees typically produce 2 to 5 long branches; making a scraggly tree structure with few terminals. However, several techniques will improve tree structure and bearing surface area. At planting or soon afterward, remove limbs with a narrow crotch angle. To force new shoot growth and increase the number of new shoots either bend long upright limbs to a horizontal position by tying or head back upright limbs. Shoot tip removal (removing 1-2 inches of the end of new shoots), once or twice during spring and summer will increase branching and make the tree more compact.

Mature Trees
Tree size control is done to facilitate spraying and picking and to maintain high light levels from the bottom to the top of the tree. It also greatly reduces the potential damage sustained due to hurricanes and strong winds. As trees mature, most of the pruning is done to control tree size (height and width), and to maintain production of the lower tree canopy and light on all sides of the canopy.

Longan trees in the home landscape may be pruned by hand or with gas/oil or electrical cutting tools by selectively thinning out a few moderate and small sized limbs each year. Trees kept 10 to 15 ft high (3.1-4.6 m) and 15 to 30 ft (4.6-9.1 m) wide are easier to care for and pick. They are also less likely to topple during strong winds. If the canopy of the tree becomes too dense, selective removal of some branches will increase air circulation and light penetration.

Fruit Thinning

Longan fruit thining. Fig. 6. Longan fruit thinning.
Credits: Ian Maguire/UF/IFAS/TREC

Longan fruit thining. Fig. 7. Longan fruit thinning – placement of the pruning cut.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Longan fruit thining. Fig. 8.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Longan fruit set varies greatly among trees and years. In some years, individual longan panicles set in excess of 300 fruit. However, panicles with 150 or more fruit usually produce small fruit. Removing about 50% of the set fruit during the spring usually results in a large increase in fruit size. Thinning is best done when fruit are ¼ to ½ inches (6-12 mm) in diameter and consists of removing one half to two-thirds of the distal (terminal) end of each panicle.

Harvest, Ripening, and Storage
The longan harvest season in south Florida is from the middle of July to early September but is mainly in August. At maturity, the fruit will be an intense tan color. The main ripeness indicator is pulp sweetness; this occurs before removing the fruit from the tree. Fruit that is 1¼ inches (32 mm) or greater in diameter with good flavor is most desirable. Once removed from the tree, the fruit will not increase in sweetness.

Fruit is harvested by hand, with pruning shears or a pole with a cutter that holds the entire cluster. Usually, a portion of the branch behind the fruit-bearing panicle (about 1 ft; 30 cm) is cut. Harvested fruit should be placed in the shade immediately and then cooled as soon as possible. Longan fruit have a relatively short shelf life when stored at ambient temperatures of 75-85oF (24-29oC). Fruit harvested at home may be placed in plastic bags and kept in the refrigerator for 5 to 7 days.

Uses and Nutritional Value
Longan trees make excellent specimen or shade trees and enhance the landscape with their dark-green foliage. Longans produced in south Florida are consumed fresh or are frozen for later consumption. Fruit may be frozen whole in polyethylene bags or air-tight containers. In other producing countries fruit are dried and canned. This helps to popularize the fruit by extending the normally very short season. The fruit is a good source of potassium and low in calories (Table 4).

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longan

Longan fruits …Trái Nhãn …

Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Trái Nhãn Long trồng ở Bến Tre.

Vietnamese named : Nhãn
Common names : Longan, Dragon eye, Leng Keng
Scientist name : Dimocarpus longan Lour.
Synonyms : Synonyms: Nephelium longan (Lam.) Carm.; Euphoria longana Steud.
Family : Sapindaceae. Họ Bồ Hòn
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Rosids
Order:Sapindales
Genus:Dimocarpus
Species:D. longan

Links :

**** vho.vn/view.htm?ID=2560&keyword=gan
Nhãn – Dimocarpus longan Lour. (Euphoria longan (Lour.) Stend.), thuộc họ Bồ hòn – Sapindaceae.

Mô tả: Cây cao 5-10m, tán lá tròn xoè ra và rậm rạp. Cành non có lông. Lá mọc so le, kép lông chim, gồm 3-5 đôi lá chét nhẵn, mặt dưới màu thẫm hơn. Hoa xếp thành chuỳ mọc ở ngọn cành và ở nách lá, màu vàng nhạt. Quả tròn, vỏ quả vàng trơn nhẵn. Hạt đen nhánh. Áo hạt màu trắng trong bao quanh hạt và không dính vào hạt, khi chín thì ngọt và ăn mát.

Bộ phận dùng: Áo hạt (hay gọi là cùi) – Arillus Longan, thường gọi là Long nhãn nhục. Hạt, lá cũng được dùng.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Gốc ở Ấn Độ, được trồng ở vùng đồng bằng. Nhãn dễ trồng, mọc nhanh, thích hợp với đất thịt pha cát, nơi có lớp đất canh tác sâu. Có thể trồng bằng hạt, bằng cành chiết hay ghép cây. Độ 4-5 năm thì có quả, thời gian cho quả cũng rất lâu. Vào tháng 6-8, khi Nhãn chín, thu về, phơi nắng hay sấy cho cùi vàng đều thì lột cùi, phơi tiếp đến khô thì dùng. Hạt dùng phơi khô. Rễ và lá thu hái quanh năm.

Thành phần hoá học: Cùi Nhãn còn tươi có các thành phần sau, tính theo %: nước 77,15, tro 0,01, chất béo 0,13, protid 1,47, hợp chất có nitrogen tan trong nước 20,55, đường saccharose 12,25, vitamin A và B. Cùi Nhãn khô chứa nước 0,85, chất tan trong nước 79,77, chất không tan trong nước 19,39, tro 3,36. Trong phần tan trong nước có glucose 26,91%, saccharose 0,22%, acid tartric 1,26%, chất có nitrogen 6,309%.

Hạt Nhãn chứa tinh bột, saponin, chất béo và tanin. Lá chứa quercetrin, quercetin, tanin.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Cùi Nhãn có vị ngọt, tính ấm; có tác dụng bổ tâm, an thần, kiện tỳ, làm tăng cơ nhục. Hạt có vị mặn, tính bình, có tác dụng thu liễm chỉ huyết. Lá có tác dụng hạ nhiệt, tiêu viêm. Rễ có tác dụng lợi tiểu và hoạt huyết.

Công dụng: Các bộ phận khác nhau của Nhãn được dùng như sau:

– Cùi Nhãn dùng chữa trí nhớ suy giảm hay quên, tư lự quá độ mất ngủ, thần kinh suy nhược, tâm thần mệt mỏi hồi hộp, hoảng hốt, gan kém, tỳ kém, huyết hư, rong kinh, ốm yếu sau khi bị bệnh. Dùng 9-15g.

– Rễ chữa dưỡng trấp niệu, bạch đới, thống phong. Dùng 15-30g.

– Lá dùng ngừa sởi, trị cảm lạnh, sốt rét, viêm ruột. Dùng 10-15g. Lá nấu nước tắm trị eczema bìu dái.

– Hạt dùng trị đau dạ dày, đau thoát vị, mụn nhọt và bỏng, vết thương chảy máu. Dùng 10-15g dạng thuốc sắc. Đồng thời tán bột, hoà với dầu Dừa dùng bôi vào chỗ đau.

– Vỏ cây và vỏ quả dùng chữa bỏng, chữa sâu răng. Đốt, tán bột hay nấu cao bôi.

Ghi chú: Còn có thứ Nhãn tà, Nhãn cám – Dimocarpus longan Lour. subsp. longan var. obtusa (Pierre) Leenh., có quả ăn được và dùng làm thuốc như Nhãn và cỏ cũng dùng chữa vết thương và cầm máu

**** www.khuyennongvn.gov.vn/e-khcn/ghep-bo-cay-nhan-xuong-com…
Ghép bo cây nhãn xuồng cơm vàng để ngăn chặn bệnh chổi rồng đang gây hại hàng ngàn ha nhãn tại ĐBSCL

**** cnx.org/content/m30716/latest/?collection=col10800/1.1
sự ra hoa và biện pháp xử lý ra hoa nhãn

**** www.thaythuoccuaban.com/vithuoc/longnhan nhuc.htm
**** thuocdongduoc.vn/index.php?option=com_content&view=ar…

____________________________________________________________

**** edis.ifas.ufl.edu/mg049
Longan Growing in the Florida Home Landscape1
Other common names: English – lungan, dragon eye; Spanish – mamoncillo chino, longana; Malaysian and Indonesian – leng keng; Thai – lam yai

Scientific name: Dimocarpus longan Lour.

Synonyms: Nephelium longan (Lam.) Carm.; Euphoria longana Steud.

Family: Sapindaceae

Relatives in the same family: Lychee, rambutan, pulasan, akee, Spanish lime, soapberry

Origin: Mayanmar (Burma), southern China, southwest India, Sri Lanka, Indochinese peninsula

Distribution: China, Taiwan, Thailand, Mayanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, India, Australia, Kenya, some Central and South American countries, and South Africa. In the United States longan is grown in Hawaii, California and south Florida. The longan was introduced to the United States in 1903. Commercial acreage in southern Florida was planted in the 1990s and continues to the present.

Importance: Economically the longan is an important crop in southeast Asia and is of increasing importance in Florida.

Botanical Description
Longan tree. Fig. 2. ‘Kohala’ longan tree with fruit.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Tree: The longan is a symmetrical, evergreen tree with dense dark green foliage. Depending upon climate and soil type the tree may grow over 100 ft (31 m) tall. However, in south Florida, trees typically grow to 30-40 ft (9.1-12.2 m) in height and width. The crown tends to be round or oblong and the bark is corky.

Longan leaves. Fig. 3. ‘Kohala’ longan leaves.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Leaves: The pinnately compound alternate leaves are dark green, shiny, leathery, up to 12 inches (30 cm) long with wavy margins and blunt pointed tips. There are 6 to 9 pairs of leaflets per leaf.

Longan flowers. Fig. 4. ‘Kohala’ longan panicle in flower.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Flowers: Inflorescences are terminal, 4 to 18 inches (10-45 cm) long, erect and widely branched. The inflorescence is commonly called a panicle. Flowers on the panicle are held on numerous cymules on the many branchlets of the panicle. The flowers are small and have 5 to 6 sepals and petals, and are brownish yellow or greenish yellow, with a two-lobed pistil and usually 8 stamens. Panicles may carry a few to more than 350 fruit. There are 3 flower types in longan, staminate (functionally male), pistillate (functionally female) and hermaphroditic (bisexual). Flowering in each panicle occurs in progressive openings of staminate (male) flowers first, then hermaphroditic flowers functioning as females and then hermaphroditic flowers functioning as males.

‘Kohola’ longan. Fig. 5. ‘Kohala’ longan fruit.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Fruit: The drupaceous fruit are spherical to ovoid, ¾ to 1 7/16 inches (22-36 mm) in diameter and 0.21 to 0.67 oz (6-19 g) in weight. The peel is tan or light brown, thin, leathery and smoother than that of the lychee. The pulp is whitish and translucent; thin in large seeded fruits and medium thick to thick in others. Fruit have 1 seed; globular and shiny, brown to dark brown. The pulp does not adhere to the seed and is flavorful and sweet with 12-21% soluble solids. The time from flowering to harvest is 140 to 190 days.

Season of bearing: The main bloom season for longans in south Florida is from February/March through April and the beginning of May. However, some cultivars will produce off-season blooms after the crop is harvested in late August and September. The off-season crop matures in the fall.

Varieties
There are numerous cultivars of longan; however, world-wide only 30 to 40 are grown commercially. Reliable bearing is the major production problem for longan throughout the world. In Florida, 99% of the acreage is planted with ‘Kohala’. Other cultivars have been introduced, some for a long time and others recently (Table 1). A number of new and re-introductions including ‘Edau’ (‘Daw’), ‘Chompoo’, ‘Haew’, and ‘Biew Kiew’ are under evaluation by several institutions and producers. However, nothing superior to ‘Kohala’ has been identified.

One of the recently introduced cultivars is named ‘Diamond River’. This cultivar is from Thailand and is reported to fruit every year, be precocious, produce off-season, and produce a sizeable late season crop. However, fruit quality is only fair and the tree is very susceptible to limb breakage.

Climate
Longan is a subtropical tree well adapted to tropical climates with distinctive wet/dry periods and subtropical areas with a cool, nonfreezing fall/winter period. Longans are indigenous to lowland and middle elevations in southeast Asia and grow at elevations from sea level to 1500 feet (1.8-460 m).

Longans produce more reliably in areas characterized by low non-freezing temperatures (59°F; 15°C or less) and a dry period during the fall and winter (October-February). Warm temperatures (70-85°F; 21-29°C) during spring, followed by high summer temperatures (80-95°F; 27-35°C) and nonlimiting soil moisture are best for fruit development.

Warm and rainy winters are conducive to vegetative growth and reduce flowering and fruit production. Excessive rains during flowering cause flower drop and may reduce pollination and fruit set. Young longan leaves are sensitive to strong winds during vegetative flushing which may result in leaf dehydration, browning and deformation.

Environmental Stress Physiology
Drought
Longan is tolerant of dry soil conditions. Withholding or reducing watering during the late summer/early fall through winter is recommended to stop or reduce excessive vegetative growth and enhance subsequent flowering during the spring. However, for optimum fruit production and quality, regular irrigation is recommended from flowering through harvest.

Flood
Longan is not tolerant of excessively wet or flooded soil conditions When ambient temperatures are high, young trees may decline and die with as little as 5 to 10 days of flooding or constantly wet soil conditions.

Cold
Longan is slightly less cold tolerant than lychee. Young trees are very susceptible to freezing temperatures with severe damage at 29° to 31°F (-1 to –0.5°C) and may be killed at 26° to 28°F (-2 to –3°C). Older trees are more cold tolerant but branches are injured at 25° to 26°F (-3 to -4°C) with very severe damage or death below 24°F (-4°C).

Wind
Longan trees are tolerant of windy conditions and young trees can generally be established on windy sites. Mature trees pruned to limit their hieght to 10 to 20 ft (3.1-6.1 m) are more likely to survive hurricane force winds. The most common damage from hurricane winds is toppling over of the trees and loss of most limbs. Windy, dry, cool weather during flowering desiccates flowers and reduces fruit set.

Salt
Longan is not tolerant of saline soil and water conditions. Symptoms of salt stress include marginal and tip necrosis of leaves, leaf browning and drop, stem dieback, and tree death.

Propagation
Longan may be grown from seed, however, cultivars do not come true from seed, may be slow to bear, and the fruit of inferior quality. Seedlings may be used for selection of new cultivars or rootstocks. Air layering (marcottage) is the most common propagation method used in Florida. April through August is the best time for air layering and roots form within 10 to 12 weeks. Grafting onto seedling rootstock may be done by side veneer or cleft grafting. Seedlings are usually grafted when pencil size (3/8th inch; 8 mm) or larger stem diameter. Trees may be top-worked by grafting onto selected vigorous shoots. Trees may also be propagated by cuttings with mist and bottom heat.

Production (Crop Yields)
Seedling trees may take up to 6 years to bear fruit, whereas air layered trees may bear fruit 2 to 3 years after planting. In general, longan trees bear erratically (i.e., not every year) and in some years little to no fruit is produced. Yields from individual mature trees may range from 50 to over 500 lbs (23-227 kg).

Spacing
Longans grow fairly fast and at maturity, are large trees. Homeowners should plant longan trees 22 to 25 ft (6.7-7.6 m) or more away from other trees and structures. Trees planted too close to other trees or structures may not grow normally or produce much fruit due to shading.

Soils
Longan trees thrive on various soil types provided they are well drained. They do well on sandy loams, sand and calcareous, rocky soils of south Florida.

Planting a Longan Tree
Properly planting a longan tree is one of the most important steps in successfully establishing and growing a strong, productive tree. The first step is to choose a healthy nursery tree. Commonly, nursery longan trees are grown in 3 gallon containers and trees stand 2 to 4 ft (0.6-0.9 m) from the soil media. Large trees in smaller containers should be avoided as the root system may be "root bound". This means all the available space in the container has been filled with roots to the point that the root system becomes compacted within the container. Root bound root systems may not grow properly once planted in the ground.

Inspect the tree for insect pests and diseases and inspect the trunk of the tree for wounds and constrictions. Select a healthy tree and water it regularly in preparation for planting in the ground.

Planting may be done at any time in south Florida if there is access to water. Otherwise, the best time to plant is in late spring or early summer during the rainy season.

Site Selection
In general, longan trees should be planted in full sun for best growth and fruit production. Select a part of the landscape away from other trees, buildings and structures, and powerlines. Remember longan trees can become very large if not pruned to contain their size. Select the warmest area of the landscape that does not flood (or remain wet) after typical summer rainfall events.

Planting in Sandy Soil
Many areas in Florida have sandy soil. Remove a 3 to 10 ft (0.9-3.1 m) diameter ring of grass sod. Dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times a deep as the container the longan tree has come in. Making a large hole loosens the soil adjacent to the new tree making it easy for the roots to expand into the adjacent soil. It is not necessary to apply fertilizer, topsoil, or compost to the hole. In fact, placing topsoil or compost in the hole first and then planting on top of it is not desirable. If you wish to add topsoil or compost to the native soil, mix it with the soil excavated from making the hole in no more than a 50-50 ratio.

Backfill the hole with some of the native soil removed to make the hole. Remove the tree from the container and place it in the hole so that the top of the soil media in the container is level with or slightly above the surrounding soil level. Fill soil in around the tree roots and tamp slightly to remove air pockets. Immediately water the soil around the tree and tree roots. Staking the tree with a wooden or bamboo stake is optional. However, do not use wire or nylon rope to tie the tree to the stake as they may eventually damage the tree trunk as it grows. Use a cotton or natural fiber string that will degrade slowly.

Planting in Rockland Soil
Many areas in Miami-Dade County have a very shallow soil and several inches below the soil surface is a hard calcareous bedrock. Remove a 3 to 10 ft (0.9-3.1 m) diameter ring of grass sod. Make a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times a deep as the container the longan tree has come in. To dig a hole there are several options use a pick and digging bar to break up the rock or contract with a company that has augering equipment or a backhoe. Plant as described in the previous section.

Planting on a Mound
Many areas in Florida are within 7 ft or so of the water table and experience occasional flooding after heavy rainfall events. To improve plant survival consider planting fruit trees on a 2 to 3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) (1.2-3.1 m) high by 4 to 10 ft diameter mound of native soil.

After the mound is made, dig a hole 3 to 4 times the diameter and 3 times a deep as the container the longan tree has come in. In areas where the bedrock nearly comes to the surface (rockland soil) follow the recommendations for the previous section. In areas with sandy soil follow the recommendations from the section on planting in sandy soil.

Care of Longan Trees in the Home Landscape
A calendar outlining the month-to-month cultural practices for longan is shown in Table 2.

Fertilizer
A month after planting spread 1/4 lb (113 g) per tree of a young tree fertilizer, such as 6-6-6 (% nitrogen-% phosphate-% potassium) with minor elements with 20 to 30% of the nitrogen from organic sources. Repeat this every 6 to 8 weeks for the first year. Then, gradually increase the amount of fertilizer to 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 lb etc., (227 g, 341 g, 454 g, etc.) as the trees grow. Four to 6 dry fertilizer applications per year may be made up to the third year (Table 3).

A foliar fertilizer mix composed of minor nutrients (manganese, zinc, boron, and molybdenum) and magnesium may be applied 4 to 6 times per tree per year any time from April to September. For trees in acid to neutral soils apply iron sulfate at 0.25 to 1 oz per tree to the soil 2 to 4 timers per year. In alkaline soils with a high pH, drench the soil with iron chelate 2 to 3 times per year from June through September. To make a soil drench, mix 0.5 to 0.75 oz (14-21 g) of iron chelate with 4 to 5 gallons (14-19 liters) of water and pour on to the soil adjacent to the tree trunk.

For mature trees, 2.5 to 5.0 lbs of fertilizer per application 2 to 3 times per year is recommended. The fertilizer should be applied just prior or at bloom, perhaps during late spring, and again just before or at harvest. The fertilizer mix should also include phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O); use a 6-6-6, 8-3-9 or similar material.

Irrigation (Watering)
Young trees should be irrigated regularly to facilitate tree establishment and growth. Once trees begin to bear (3 to 4 years after planting), trees should be irrigated regularly from flowering through harvest. Research from other regions has suggested that mild drought stress during the fall (September or October) and early winter enhances flowering in late winter or early spring.

Insect Pests
Longans have a few insect problems in south Florida. The most common pests are the lychee webworm and several scale insects. The lychee webworm (Crocidosema new species) attacks emerging shoots and panicles, flowers and young fruit and if left uncontrolled drastically reduce fruit set and crop yields. Scales include the banana shaped (Coccus acutissimus) and barnacle (Ceroplastes spp.) scales, which attack mostly the underside of leaves and the philephedra scale (Phillephedra tuberculosa) that attacks leaves and fruit. Adult citrus blue-green weevil (Pachnaeus litus), little leaf notcher (Artipus floridanus) and diaprepes weevil (Diaprepes abbreviatus) feed on leaves and their larvae feed on roots. They are mostly a problem in marl and sandy soils. Please contact your local County Cooperative Extension Service for current control recommendations.

Diseases
There are no major disease problems of longan at the present time. Red alga (Cephaleuros virescens) attacks limbs and shoots and is most prevalent during high humidity, warm, rainy weather. Symptoms include dark gray to reddish-rust colored patches or spots on bark and/or leaves. In severe infections, leaf drop and stem die back occur. Parasitic lichen (Strigula sp.) may parasitize leaves. Symptoms include white star-shaped spots on leaf surfaces. This lichen colonizes leaves reducing their ability to photosynthesize. Please contact your local County Cooperative Extension Service for current control recommendations.

Weeds
Weeds compete for water and nutrients and will slow tree establishment. Prior to planting trees, remove sod from the area the tree is to be planted in. Grass and weeds should be kept away from the tree trunk. Placing a 2 to 4 inch (5-10 cm) thick layer of mulch will suppress weed and grass growth and hold soil moisture.

Other Pests
Birds such as boat-tailed crackles (Cássidix mexicánus) and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) may feed on the fruit. Bagging the fruit in paper bags and netting may be used to exclude these birds if they become a major problem.

Longan Trees and Lawn Care
Longan trees in the home landscape are susceptible to trunk injury caused by lawn mowers and weed eaters. Maintain a grass-free area 2 to 5 or more away from the trunk of the tree. Never hit the tree trunk with lawn mowing equipment and never use a weed eater near the tree trunk. Mechanical damage to the trunk of the tree will result in weakening the tree and if severe enough can cause the tree to dieback or die.

Roots of mature longan trees spread beyond the drip-line of the tree canopy and heavy fertilization of the lawn adjacent to longan tree is not recommended and may reduce fruiting and or fruit quality. The use of lawn sprinkler systems on a timer may result in over watering and cause longan tree to decline. This is because too much water, too often is being applied which results in root rot.

Mulch
Mulching longan trees in the home landscape helps retain soil moisture, reduces weed problems adjacent to the tree trunk, and improves the soil near the surface. Mulch with a 2 to 6 inch (5-15 cm) layer of bark, wood chips, or similar mulch material. Keep mulch 8 to 12 inches (20-30 cm) from the trunk.

Tree Training and Pruning
Young Trees
Young longan trees are usually not trained in south Florida. However, young longan trees typically produce 2 to 5 long branches; making a scraggly tree structure with few terminals. However, several techniques will improve tree structure and bearing surface area. At planting or soon afterward, remove limbs with a narrow crotch angle. To force new shoot growth and increase the number of new shoots either bend long upright limbs to a horizontal position by tying or head back upright limbs. Shoot tip removal (removing 1-2 inches of the end of new shoots), once or twice during spring and summer will increase branching and make the tree more compact.

Mature Trees
Tree size control is done to facilitate spraying and picking and to maintain high light levels from the bottom to the top of the tree. It also greatly reduces the potential damage sustained due to hurricanes and strong winds. As trees mature, most of the pruning is done to control tree size (height and width), and to maintain production of the lower tree canopy and light on all sides of the canopy.

Longan trees in the home landscape may be pruned by hand or with gas/oil or electrical cutting tools by selectively thinning out a few moderate and small sized limbs each year. Trees kept 10 to 15 ft high (3.1-4.6 m) and 15 to 30 ft (4.6-9.1 m) wide are easier to care for and pick. They are also less likely to topple during strong winds. If the canopy of the tree becomes too dense, selective removal of some branches will increase air circulation and light penetration.

Fruit Thinning

Longan fruit thining. Fig. 6. Longan fruit thinning.
Credits: Ian Maguire/UF/IFAS/TREC

Longan fruit thining. Fig. 7. Longan fruit thinning – placement of the pruning cut.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Longan fruit thining. Fig. 8.
Credits: Ian Maguire UF/IFAS/TREC
Longan fruit set varies greatly among trees and years. In some years, individual longan panicles set in excess of 300 fruit. However, panicles with 150 or more fruit usually produce small fruit. Removing about 50% of the set fruit during the spring usually results in a large increase in fruit size. Thinning is best done when fruit are ¼ to ½ inches (6-12 mm) in diameter and consists of removing one half to two-thirds of the distal (terminal) end of each panicle.

Harvest, Ripening, and Storage
The longan harvest season in south Florida is from the middle of July to early September but is mainly in August. At maturity, the fruit will be an intense tan color. The main ripeness indicator is pulp sweetness; this occurs before removing the fruit from the tree. Fruit that is 1¼ inches (32 mm) or greater in diameter with good flavor is most desirable. Once removed from the tree, the fruit will not increase in sweetness.

Fruit is harvested by hand, with pruning shears or a pole with a cutter that holds the entire cluster. Usually, a portion of the branch behind the fruit-bearing panicle (about 1 ft; 30 cm) is cut. Harvested fruit should be placed in the shade immediately and then cooled as soon as possible. Longan fruit have a relatively short shelf life when stored at ambient temperatures of 75-85oF (24-29oC). Fruit harvested at home may be placed in plastic bags and kept in the refrigerator for 5 to 7 days.

Uses and Nutritional Value
Longan trees make excellent specimen or shade trees and enhance the landscape with their dark-green foliage. Longans produced in south Florida are consumed fresh or are frozen for later consumption. Fruit may be frozen whole in polyethylene bags or air-tight containers. In other producing countries fruit are dried and canned. This helps to popularize the fruit by extending the normally very short season. The fruit is a good source of potassium and low in calories (Table 4).

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longan

The Man with the Iron Hand

Image by guano
Henry de Tonti stands at the high end of Tonti Creek,

at Starved Rock State Park, Illinois. I took the creek photo,
and the Tonti portrait was painted by Ben Brantly in 1995.

Starved Rock park is rich with the footprints of Henri de Tonti. Tonti Canyon is narrow with two 80 foot waterfalls. There is a back canyon with 3 more waterfalls that only flow with snow melt or rain run off. It’s a beautiful place. Tonti canyon connects to LaSalle Canyon, which boasts the largest water flow in it’s series of cascades and waterfalls.

When I die, my ashes will be scattered along the high bluff trail atop LaSalle and Tonti canyons. I am attaching some bits of historical information about Henri de Tonti, the Man with the Iron Hand.

———————-

Henri de Tonty (also spelled Tonti) born 1650, Gaeta, Italy, died September 1704, Fort Louis, Louisiana (now in Alabama).

Among the greatest of the dauntless men who made possible the exploration and settlement of the Mississippi Basin, there is one forgotten man. He was a simple sturdy soldier, blunt and laconic in his speech or his reports, over-shadowed by his brilliant chief — La Salle — whose trusted lieutenant, loyal friend and devoted companion he was. The Forest Preserve District proposes to create a lake and name it for Henry de Tonty, Sieur and Chevalier, Governor of Fort St. Louis in the Province of the Illinois — The Man with the Iron Hand.

Lorenzo Tonty, his father, was a banker in Naples, Italy. After a bloody revolt in 1647, he escaped to Paris where Cardinal Mazarin, also an Italian, had succeeded Cardinal Richelieu as prime minister for Louis XIV. It was Lorenzo Tonty who suggested to Mazarin a system of life insurance which would replenish the royal treasury, and the name
"tontine" for such a policy is in your dictionary.

Henry, or Henri Tonti, was born in 1650. In 1668-69, Henri served in the French army as a cadet. During the following four years he was a midshipman at Marseilles and Toulon, participating in seven campaigns at sea, four in warships and three in galleys. Sent to Sicily, he was made captain-lieutenant to the maitre de camp at Messina.

At Libisso, during a Spanish attack, his right hand was shot away by a grenade and he was taken prisoner. Conducted to Metasse, he was detained there six months, then exchanged for the governor’s son. In place of his missing left hand, he wore an iron hook, covered by a glove. His iron hand was feared by the Indians as "big medicine". In 1678 he was engaged as LaSalle’s lieutenant and they sailed for Quebec .

LaSalle, after talking with Joliet who had explored part of the Mississippi with Father Marquette, determined to find out if it was the long-sought route to China and India. In 1679, they started out in canoes, accompanied by three Recollects (Franciscans) — Fathers Ribourdi, Membre and Hennepin — who as LaSalle extended dominions of the king of France, would "bring the inhabitants to a knowledge of the Christian religion".

From the east shore of Lake Michigan they went up the St. Joseph River, over into the Kankakee and, in 1680, arrived at Peoria where they built Fort Crevecoeur. Father Hennepin was sent to explore the upper Mississippi. LaSalle went back to Montreal by way of the Chicago Portage, and Tonty, after surveying the site for Fort St. Louis on Starved Rock, planned to meet him at Mackinac.

After Tonty left, Fort Crevecoeur was destroyed, Father Rihourdi was killed by a band of Kickapoos, and Tonty narrowly escaped death from an Iroquois war party. Alarmed by the prospect of the French supplying arms and ammunition to the Illinois, the Iroquois decided to make war. They struck on September 10, 1680. At first Tonty tried to buy them off with necklaces, but received only a glancing blow from a knife for his pains. Bravely persevering and with the assistance of an Onondaga chief named Agonstot, he gave them to understand that the Illinois were under the protection of the king of France and persuaded them to call off their attack. Nevertheless, the Iroquois insisted that Tonty and his men immediately leave the Illinois country.

Hoping to reach Michilimackinac before winter set in, Tonty and his party arrived early in October at the site of the present city of Chicago, where they rediscovered the portage taken by Louis Jolliet and Father Marquette seven years before. From here they headed for Baie des Puants (Green Bay). While proceeding by canoe on Lac des Illinois (Lake Michigan), they were wrecked on November 1, 1680. During the next two weeks they lived on wild garlic, grubbed up from under the snow. They ate decayed pumpkins in an abandoned Potawatomi village. They ate the thongs which fastened the lodge poles. They ate the skins and hoofs of a deer killed by wolves, and they chewed a buffalo-hide shield "which gave them bellyaches".

Ultimately they arrived at a Potawatomi settlement where Tonty remained for the winter while his chaplain went on to the Jesuit mission of St Francis Xavier.

In 1682, LaSalle and Tonty reached the mouth of the Mississippi. LaSalle then returned to France to organize the expedition which finally landed at Matagorda Bay, Texas. After his ship was wrecked and most of the party had died or been killed, he was assassinated by his own men on a desperate overland trip to reach Tonty. Meanwhile, Tonty had built Fort St. Louis, rebuilt Fort Crevecoeur, and defeated the terrible Iroquois with a confederation of the Illinois and several other tribes.

In 1686 and 1689, with Father Membre, he made fruitless trips down the Mississippi to find his boss. In 1700 he was replaced as governor of Fort St. Louis where he had maintained the supremacy of the French for 20 years and grimly endured neglect and injustice from his king. He was ordered to Biloxi, where de’Iberville had established a settlement. In 1704, at a new colony on the Mobile River, a supply vessel from Havana brought yellow fever to Fort Biloxi. Tonti nursed the sick and buried the dead. In September, Tonti also died of yellow fever at Fort Louis-de-la-Louisiane.

According to local lore, de Tonti’s “remains were laid to everlasting rest in an unknown grave near Mobile River, and not far from the monument erected in 1902 to commemorate the site of old Mobile.”

—————-

some quotes from the "Relation of Henri de Tonty Concerning the Explorations of La Salle from 1678 to 1683"

“…at the Coroa village, Indian corn comes to maturity in forty days. July, 1862. Fortunately I found at the lakeside an Outagamie, who sold me his canoe. Finding no one at the river of the Miamis, I made my way to Michilimakinak (previously spelled "Missilimakinak), which I reached on the 22nd of July. M. de La Salle, recovering from his illness, which had lasted forty days, sent me orders to await him, and, being arrived at Michili- makinak, decided to return to "

"France in order to give an account at Court of his Tonty returns discovery. He sent me back to build a fort at the portage of the Illinois River, for to the Illinois the purpose of protecting the village of the Shawanoes, whom he had drawn to him to build a fort and had joined with the Miamis. Being arrived, I found that the Shawanoes had gone hunting and that the Miamis were preparing for flight, as they had been told that the Iroquois were coming to devour them. I found that all our people were dispersed; and, as I had few men, I resolved to pass the winter on the Illinois River, hoping to be able to collect my men in the spring. Meanwhile, as M. de La Salle found himself unwell he resolved not to return to France, but to send his dispatches by the Reverend Father Zenoble."

"On the 30th of December he joined me; and during the winter we built upon an impregnable rock Fort St. Louis, to which M. de La Salle induced the Shawanoes Fort St. to come. The Miamis united themselves with him, and later the Illinois, to whom, Louis in the month of March, 1683, I made a journey of more than a hundred leagues across the prairies. After I had made them great presents in behalf of M. de La Salle, whom they call their Father, they gave me their word that they would join us."

"I will not weary you, Sir, with all the difficulties we encountered in collecting La Salle’s these tribes, whose minds were preoccupied with the evil reports which the French enemies of M. de La Salle had spread among them. Then, after M. de La Salle enemies had placed his fort in a state of defense, he resolved to return to France. Leaving me in command, he set out in the month of August, 1683, taking with him two Shawanoes."

"Fourteen leagues from the fort, he met the Chevalier de Baugy, who brought him a letter from M. de La Barre, Governor General of Canada, ordering him to return to give an account of his discovery. This Chevalier de Baugy reached the
Fort with letters from M. de La Salle, who advised me to receive him well and to live with."

—————

Henry de Tonty – 1699
by Rose Jo Boylan, Metro East Journal, July 6, 1966 (4th in a Series)

If you know one date in the history of Metro-East, it is most likely to be 1699.

That was the year when three priests from the Seminary of the Foreign Missions of Quebec, accompanied by lay employees, established themselves at a permanent settlement in the Cahokia-Tamaroa village. They acted under the guidance and protection of Henry de Tonty, merchant prince of the wilderness, who literally ruled the Illinois country "with an it-on hand." (He was a war veteran amputee.)

Bishop J. B. St. Vallier of Quebec, under date of July 14, 1698, assigned the Quebec Seminary priests to establish missions along the Mississippi River, from the Illinois to the Arkansas. He expressly directed them to set up residence among the Tamaroas, saying, “The location . . . is . . . the Key and necessary passageway to the nation’s beyond.”

The three priests so detailed were Father Francois Jolliet de Montigny, Father Antoine Davion, and Father Jean Francois Buisson de St. Cosme.

Passing through Mackinac, they met Tonty, who decided that he would help start the good work and handle his business on the lower river at the same time. Tonty knew the Cahokia-Tamaroa homeland from earlier trips, beginning as aide to the late great Robert Cavelier de La Salle.

They took the usual route: Lake Michigan, the Chicago portage, the Illinois river. They visited Illinois villages along the river and enjoyed civilized talk with the Jesuit fathers working among them. One tribe had a woman chief.

The Quebec party included a lay brother and 11 employees, two of them blacksmiths, in three canoes. Tonty had his own canoe and crew. Besides these official parties, five young men joined for the ride.

They entered the Mississippi on Dec. 6, 1698. That evening they camped with the Cahokias. The tribe was then living midway between Alton and East St. Louis, to use modern terms. This would place them not too far from the Cahokia mounds.

The Cahokias were mourning a recent defeat by the Shawnees and Chickasaws. When they saw their old friend Tonty, they began to weep. The visitors consoled them with presents. At noon next day the travelers reached the riverside camp of the Tamaroas on an island near the mouth of Cahokia Creek. The tribe also had another village on an upland prairie.

The Tamaroa chief came to the waterfront to welcome them. Next day, escorted by Tonty, the missionaries visited the chief in his cabin. The women and youths were so curious that they broke away a part of the cabin wall to see the black gowns.

The site was a good one. The Cahokias and Tamaroas could be combined into a flourishing mission. Perhaps their friends to the South, the Metchigamies, would also be included.

The party continued onward to the mouth of the Arkansas. Tonty was their mainstay all the way, Wherever they went he eased the missionaries’ way with the tribes who knew and trusted him.

"Now, you pray and listen to the blackrobes." He told them. Tonty of the Iron Hand was a shrewd businessman, a brave soldier and a devout Christian, all in one.

All along the way they ate off the land-shooting so many bears, deer and turkeys that they did not attempt to fire at the herds of "oxen" (buffalo). On the return up river, Father St. Cosme stayed at the Cahokia-Tamaroa village. By mid-May his rectory was finished.

The Cahokias had moved to the combined village which now numbered two thousand persons in 300 cabins. In the third week of May, the first chapel was completed. A cross was raised to the hymn, "Vexilla Regis Prodeun"- "The banners of the king advance."

Henry de Tonty wrote to Bishop St. Vallier: "As for the Illinois missions, may God help many of the decisions (concerning their future) be to His honor and glory forever."

—————

Henri de Tonti, soldier, was associated with René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, qv in the fur trade and in exploration of the Great Lakes region and the Mississippi Valley. He is linked to Texas history through his search for La Salle’s Gulf Coast colony.

Tonti wrote an account of his 1689 expedition, which entered eastern Texas through the Caddoan tribes, recounting both
the journey’s hardships and his observations that bespoke great promise for the region.

Tonti was born in 1649 or 1650, probably in Gaeta, Italy, the son of Lorenzo de Tonti and Isabelle di Lietto. Lorenzo de Tonti, a former governor of Gaeta and a financier of considerable note, invented a form of life insurance known as the tontine. Because of his involvement in an unsuccessful revolt against the Spanish viceroy in Naples, Lorenzo sought asylum in France.

The family arrived in Paris about 1650-either shortly after or just prior to Henri’s birth. Henri de Tonti entered the French army in 1668 as a cadet and later served in the French Navy. After losing his right hand in a grenade explosion at Labisso during the Sicilian wars, he substituted a metal hook, over which he customarily wore a glove, and thus became known as "Iron Hand." In July 1678 Tonti went with La Salle to Canada. La Salle, quickly recognizing that "his energy and address make him equal to anything," soon after his arrival was planning to send him to establish a fort near Niagara Falls.

In March 1680 La Salle left Tonti to hold Fort Crèvecoeur (Illinois), while he himself returned to Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. In the spring of 1682 Tonti accompanied La Salle on his descent of the Mississippi River and explored one of the branches at its mouth. His letters and memoirs of this and other expeditions comprise a body of valuable source material on La Salle and Mississippi Valley exploration.

When La Salle sailed for France in 1683 to advance his plan for planting a colony on the lower Mississippi, Tonti was left in command of Fort Saint-Louis on the Illinois River. Early in 1686, after learning that La Salle had sailed from France to seek the Mississippi from the Gulf of Mexico, he voyaged down the river hoping to join him and support his undertaking. Failing to find La Salle, he searched the Gulf Coast twenty to thirty leagues in either direction, then returned to the mouth of the Arkansas River, where he left several men to establish a trading post.

It was of this undertaking that Alonso De Leónqv heard through an Indian messenger following his 1689 Texas entrada and his discovery of the ruins of La Salle’s fort on Garcitas Creek in the area of present-day Victoria County. During most of 1687 Tonti was involved in wars with the Iroquois and the English. In the spring of 1688 he returned to Fort Saint-Louis on the Illinois to find five members of La Salle’s company-including La Salle’s brother, Abbé Jean Cavelierqv-who had traveled from the Texas settlement.

Abbé Cavelier, wishing to obtain a loan from his brother’s account to pay for passage to France, concealed from Tonti the fact that La Salle already was dead. Had he revealed the truth, Tonti might have had time to rescue the twenty-five men, women, and children La Salle had left at Fort St. Louisqv of Texas. When he learned the truth ten months later, he had no way of knowing that it was too late to save those in the meager settlement on the Gulf. First sending Jean Couture among the East Texas Indians to seek news of any survivors, Tonti himself started for the Caddoan tribes in October 1689.

Traveling up the Red River by canoe, he reached the Kadohadacho villages near the northeastern corner of the present state of Texas in March 1690. It was of this journey that Alonso De Leon heard later that year while among the Hasinai, and of which Domingo Terán de los Ríosqv was told while encamped on the Colorado River in July 1691.

From the Kadohadacho Tonti heard that seven Frenchmen remained among the Nabedache of the Hasinai confederacy, eighty leagues away. Deserted by most of his companions, he resumed his journey in April 1690. When he approached the Nabedache village, he learned of the Spanish expedition that was soon to establish San Francisco de los Tejas Mission among the Nabedache of the Hasinai confederacy. The Indians refused him guides to look for La Salle’s remnants or to take him to Fort St. Louis, which he reckoned to be eighty leagues distant.

With no course left open but to withdraw, Tonti returned eastward through flooded country, constantly facing starvation and losing the notes he had made during the journey. Despite such hardships Tonti saw great possibilities in the country he had visited for the harvest of peltry, silk production, lead mining, and a thriving commerce that would supply the Caribbean islands with lumber and agricultural products.

Early in 1700 Tonti journeyed down the Mississippi to make contact with Pierre Le Moyne, Sieur d’Iberville, who the previous year had begun the Louisiana colony. Driven by the failure of his commercial enterprises in the north, Tonti eventually joined Iberville’s colony and in 1702 was chosen by Iberville as Indian agent with the initial assignment of making peace between the Choctaw and the Chickasaw.

Tonti continued to serve the colony under Iberville’s brother, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, in reconciling Indian nations and leading punitive expeditions. In August 1704 Tonti contracted yellow fever. He died at Fort Louis de la Louisiane (Old Mobile, twenty-six miles up the Mobile River from the present city) on September 4, 1704.

—————–

Tonti or Tonty, Henri de [both: äNrE’ du tôNtE’] c. 1650–1704, French explorer in North America, b. Italy. Serving in the French army, he lost a hand in battle; his skillful use of the appliance with which the hand was replaced was later to lead Native Americans to believe him possessed of special powers.

In 1678, Tonti accompanied the explorer La Salle to Canada as his lieutenant and was dispatched to Niagara where, among hostile Native Americans, he constructed the Griffon, the first sailboat to ply the Great Lakes W of Ontario. Tonti preceded La Salle westward to Detroit and penetrated into the country of the Illinois, whom he won over to the French interest. In 1680, left by La Salle at Starved Rock to construct a fort, he was faced by desertion of his men and the hostility of the Native Americans and was forced to winter in Wisconsin.

Meeting La Salle at Mackinac the following year, he traveled with him down the Mississippi to its mouth; they proclaimed the entire Mississippi watershed the domain of France. Tonti returned alone to the Illinois River, where he was rejoined by La Salle, and together they completed (1682–83) Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock. When La Salle returned to France, Tonti was left in charge of the fort. La Salle did not return, for he failed in his attempt to find the mouth of the Mississippi by sea.

Having no word, Tonti in 1686 descended the river in a hopeless search for La Salle. The following year he took part with a band of Illinois in the raid by the marquis de Denonville against the Iroquois. Tonti remained at Fort St. Louis, developing the new empire, until 1700, when he joined Iberville’s colony at the mouth of the Mississippi. Pierre Margry included Tonti’s account in Mémoires et documents pour servir à l’histoire des origines francaises des pays d’outre-mer (6 vol., 1879–1888; tr. Relation of Henri de Tonty, 1898).

See J. C. Parish, The Man with the Iron Hand (1913); C. B. Reed, Masters of the
Wilderness (1914); E. R. Murphy, Henry de Tonty, Fur Trader of the Mississippi
(1941).

———–

The following is the sad account of Henri’s younger brother, Pierre Alphonse de Tonty

Pierre Alphonse de Tonty was born in 1659 to Laurent and Angelique (de Liette) de Tonty. He had an older brother, Henri, who was part of La Salle’s expedition to the Mississippi. Henri was known to the Native Americans as "the man with the iron hand" due to an artificial hand.

On February 17, 1689, Tonty married Marianne de Belestre, daughter of Picote de Belestre (not sure which one – we know of two: one born in 1677, and his son who was born after 1710).

Some time after 1689 and before 1701, Tonty married Marianne la Marque, daughter of Francois la Marque. This was Marianne’s third marriage. On May 3, 1669, Marianne’s first husband, J.B. Nolan, died. Her second husband was Antoine de Fresnel (Fruel?) de Pipadiere.

Tonty was the Captain of Cadillac’s party which founded Fort Ponchratrain du Detroit in 1701. He was a loyal, trusted officer.

In 1703, Tonty admitted to a plot with the Jesuits of Michilimackinac to establish a new post in St. Joseph on Lake Michigan. He was pardoned by Cadillac.

In 1704, Cadillac while was in Quebec, Tonty acted (unofficially) as Commandant. At thie time, Tonty was caught embezzling company goods, along with a company commissioner, for illegal fur trade. He was removed from Fort Ponchartrain, but was later pardoned by Cadillac and returned. Tonty continued to plot against his former friend with some Native Americans.

In July 1717, Tonty was named commandant of Fort Ponchartrain. Tonty was personally responsible for all expenses at the fort, including salaries for a missionary, surgeon, soldiers and interpreters, presents for Native Americans, and clothing. He was to use the profits from trade to pay these expenses. He was neither good with finances, nor business, however, and before long, he found himself with a debt he couldn’t pay off.

His solution was to farm out the trade business to two men: Francois la Marque (his father-in-law?) and Louis Gastineau. The men took on three partners of their own: Thierry, Nolan, and Gouin. The fee they paid Tonty covered fort expenses.

The new trade "bosses" weren’t much better than Tonty and while he was commandant, annual trade "fairs" which offered twenty or more stores in Cadillac’s day, never grew above two stores — and those were owned by the same person. The trade business declined enough that community and tribal leaders filed complaints to Quebec. Tonty was called to Quebec to answer the complaints in the winter of 1721-22. Sieur de Belestre maintained the fort in his absence.

Tonty’s mistakes didn’t end there. It seems that Cadillac had given certain rights to Francois La Marque, one of the men to whom Tonty sold the trading business. For unknown reasons, Tonty didn’t honor these rights, and thus La Marque filed a compplaint with officials at Quebec. In 1724, Tonty was called to Quebec to answer to these new charges.

In 1727, Tonty went to Qeubec to welcome the new Governor of New France, Marquis de Beauharnois. He also asked the new governor for help in improvements to Fort Ponchartrain. The governor was not pleased with Tonty. His attitude worsened when Hurons settled near the fort threatened to leave if Tonty wasn’t replaced. Tonty was relived of duty effective spring 1728. He died before that date (November 10, 1727).

———- Tonti Tales from the Indian wars —————–

In the Spring of 1680, the French under La Salle built Ft. Crevecoeur in central Illinois near a Peoria village located on Lake Peoria. Henri de Tonti was put in charge of the small garrison. Tonti was a highly capable French officer who was noted for having a iron-hand. Ft. Crevecoeur suffering from shortages and desertion was soon abandoned. LaSalle ordered Tonti to relocate on the rocky promontory of Starved Rock, overlooking the Illinois River. At this time, September of 1680, Tonti only had five men (two were priests) and no construction had begun at this location.

On September 18, 1680, the Iroquois made their approach on the Illini at their village near Starved Rock, Illinois. Their war party consisted of 500-600 Iroquois and 100 Shawnee warriors. Most if not all of these were armed with flintlock muskets. The "grand Kaskaskia village" at Starved Rock had approximately 500 warriors but only 100 had muskets and the rest bows and arrows. Another 500 warriors from the village were away on a hunt.

Henri de Tonti attempted to negotiate, but it was reported that he was stabbed and nearly killed. Another source says Tonti was able to suspend hostilities for one day. All the Illini warriors could do was to cover the retreat so their women and children could flee down the Illinois river, eventually making it to near its mouth on the Mississippi (just above present day St. Louis, Mo.) After slaughtering many Illini warriors, the Iroquois burned the village, the crops of corn and even desecrated the burial grounds. Then the Iroquois pursued the Illini to the mouth of the Illinois river where the non-combatants had fled.

Here tribes of the Illini congregated for mutual defense. The Iroquois cleverly waited for the Illini tribes to disperse. It is reported that the Peoria tribe crossed over into Missouri. The Kaskaskia and Cahokia went up the Mississippi. The Moingwena went downstream on the Mississippi. But the Tamaroa stayed in the area. It was on the Tamaroa that the Iroquois attacked without mercy. 700 women and children were captured. About 350 of these were slow roasted at the stake, while another 350 were taken as slaves. In all, approximately 1,200 Illini were killed or taken captive. The Iroquois casualties were very light perhaps as few as 30 warriors killed but no reliable estimate is known.
At the abandoned Ft. Crevecoeur, the French found burnt heads and bodies of Illini stuck on skewers (The remains of captives roasted alive by the Iroquois.)

Months later in Feb. 1681, a war party of 100 Kaskaskia warriors attempted to intercept these Iroquois on their return back home. This was in the Wabash valley, of Ohio. They made several valiant attacks, the Iroquois sustaining heavy causalities, but each time they were beaten off.

————–

The French were determined to build a strong alliance of tribes to counter the attacks by the Iroquois. In Dec., 1682 they began building a fort at the summit of Starved Rock (near the former location of the "Grand Kaskaskia village" that was destroyed in 1681).

They named this fort, Fort St. Louis des Illinois [not to be confused with the village of St. Louis on the Mississippi, founded by Pierre Laclede in 1764 OR a later fort (Ft. St. Louis, II) constructed at Peoria in 1691. LaSalle was even successful in getting 200 lodges of Shawnee to not only make peace with the Illini, but to reside at the environs of Ft. St. Louis.

The closely related Miami tribe accepted the invitation as well. The new "La Salle Confederacy" consisted of 3,880 warriors (about 20,000 people altogether counting men, women, and children). The break out of warriors of the various groups were: 1,200 Illini; 200 Shawnee; 1,300 Miami (on the Vermilion River) ; 500 Wea (a subtribe of the Miami); 150 Piankaswaw (another subtribe of Miami); and 530 warriors of the Pepikokia, Kilatica, and Ouabona tribes (probably subtribes of the Miami).

The success of forming this new Confederacy of tribes not only goes to LaSalle but also to Henri de Tonti who personally traveled to each of these groups and convinced each of them the common need for protection.

On March 30, 1684, the Iroquois attacked Ft. St. Louis des Illinois after completely surrounding it. The siege lasted for a week but the Iroquois were unable to penetrate its defenses.

April 27, 1687, Tonti leads a combined Illini, Shawnee, French forces (Tonti’s western contingent consisted of 423 Indian warriors, and 376 French) journey to Niagara Falls to take part in a grand 2,132 man French attack on the Iroquois. The campaign which burned two Seneca villages had mixed results. Tonti forces fought exceptionally well and lost only eight men.

From 1685 to 1689 the "La Salle Confederacy" gradually disintegrates as the tribes move away from Starved Rock.

————

(Posted by a China Sourcing Agent)

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